People with passive-aggressive personality disorder (PAPD), may be more comfortable expressing their negative emotions and feelings indirectly or covertly. Contradictions are created by what these people say and do. This disorder manifests itself in restlessness and liability, indecisiveness as well as sullenness and vulnerability. Passive ways of coping include escaping, slacking and not performing the desired job. This is a typical pattern of passive resistance and negative behavior towards authority when it comes to demands, responsibilities, or obligations.

This article will discuss PAPD, its causes and symptoms. It also explains how healthcare professionals can diagnose and treat it.

What causes passive-aggressive personality disorder?

In childhood and adolescence moderate resistance to other people, especially authorities, tends naturally to increase and decrease with time.

It is not known why PAPD occurs. These conditions can be caused by a variety of causes, according to studies.

  • Genetic
  • Growing up in an abusive home or where substance abuse is common
  • As a child, being punished for expressing anger Negative feelings and thoughts that are not in line with your values
  • In childhood, you didn’t learn how to be yourself
  • Disruptions in the child’s relationship to authority figures, such as a caregiver, parent, or teacher

PAPD can also be experienced by certain people. Mental health condition, such:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Suicidal thoughts or behaviors
  • Substance abuse
  • Schizophrenia
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Attention or learning disorders
  • Narcissistic personality disorder


People with PAPD experience a disconnect in their communication between what they say and how they actually do it. PAPD can manifest in many ways. Common symptoms are:

  • He put off completing the tasks of a job that he initially wanted to do.
  • Making mistakes or missing deadlines in projects, tasks, and events
  • Be stubborn
  • To avoid travel, work, medical appointments or family gatherings, deliberately misplace essential documents
  • Exaggerating a personal misfortune to the point of complaining
  • Criticize or downgrade authority
  • Envy and resentment toward the fortunate
  • To be argumentative
  • It is easy to oscillate between regret and enmity.
  • Displaying an aggressive, pessimistic or sarcastic attitude
  • Blaming others for their actions or feelings
  • Feelings that you are not good enough or have low self-esteem.
  • Do not act coldly or vindictively to others, without explaining why

Diagnostic process

These assessment tools may be used by the specialist to diagnose or identify other conditions. Mental health Conditions that could be associated with PAPD

  • General personality traits and behavior perceptions
  • Characterization of daily interactions, relationships, roles
  • Emotional awareness
  • Interpersonal conflicts, present or past
  • Feelings desperation
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • History of the family or personal Mental health Conditions
  • Substance abuse
  • Ability to function daily Work and school are two of the most important areas in our lives.
  • The ability to create and maintain relationships. Healthy relationships
  • Sensitivity to inter-personal behavior
  • Interpersonal values
  • Social cognition or Awareness

There are many treatment options

PAPD can often be effectively treated by healthcare professionals with a combination therapy and medication. Common conditions that are associated with PAPD can be treated by healthcare professionals using the following treatments and medicines:

  • Anxiety medications
  • attention deficit medication
  • mood stabilizers
  • antipsychotics
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Programs for substance abuse inpatients and those who live in the community
  • peer Support or group therapy

The following are the treatment goals for PAPD:

  • Self-efficacy and self-esteem can be increased
  • Improve one’s ability Negative emotions are acceptable This includes anger
  • Being neutral towards others, particularly those who are fortunate.
  • Setting realistic expectations for yourself and others is a way to be more realistic. Interpersonal relationships
  • Learning and dealing with negative emotions. Ways to think These issues can be discussed objectively or impartially.
  • Identifying Possible causes PAPD could be a result of this development
  • Effectively addressing and resolving past interpersonal conflict
  • It is important to develop self-control Reducing feelings Hopelessness
  • Eliminating and reducing suicidal thoughts